Fritz Haber was born 9 December 1868 in Breslau and died 29 January 1934 in Basel, Switzerland. He was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process. This invention is key in producing nitrgoen fertilizers and in explosives. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare" for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I.